By: Anoshka Johum
The changing threat dynamics and enhanced maritime security requirements in the Indian Ocean region have altered the course of military modernization. Sea power plays a significant role in creating and modifying the influence of great powers on other states therefore, the states are acquiring naval power which will strengthen their position in the global political and strategic environment and will also assist in establishing their rule on the sea.
The Indian Ocean holds great geo-economic and geostrategic significance due to the presence of many important strategic chokepoints and Sea lines of communication (SLOCs) important for sea bourn trade. The importance of the Indian Ocean has also been stressed upon the US naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan who proposed that the Indian Ocean holds great significance and is the key to the seven seas in the twenty-first century, the destiny of the world will be decided in these waters, therefore who will rule it will rule the world.
The ongoing geo-economic and geo-strategic tussle between major powers like the US, China, and India for the dominance and naval supremacy in the Indian ocean, growing economic, strategic, and political relations, growing Indo-US strategic partnership, and joint Indo-US policy to contain China has transformed the strategic environment of Indian Ocean. Along with that traditional and non-tradition security challenges to Sea Lines of Communication (SLOCs) such as maritime terrorism, piracy, drug trafficking, and human smuggling are some of the major challenges that have impacted the maritime security of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
Amid all this, Pakistan’s maritime security which is intertwined with the maritime environment in the Indian Ocean region is facing an ominous hybrid mix of traditional and non-traditional maritime security threats and increased the impetus for naval modernization of Pakistan. In the last few years there has been a significant rise in the types and intensity of maritime threats that Pakistan is facing. The development of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and the intensified hostility of India has led Pakistan to undertake measures to ensure its maritime security including coastal security and freedom of navigation. Therefore, the induction of modern and potent surface platforms like frigates, corvettes, and offshore patrol vessels has assumed greater urgency
Developmental plans and strategies of military and naval forces of any country are always progressive and futuristic and are based on Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). Historically, the US and UK were considered as the major supplier of modernized weapons and ships like destroyers and frigates to Pakistan. The weapons received from them were technologically advanced and have helped Pakistan to maintain its strategic deterrent posture in the Indian Ocean. They also embedded the essence of professionalism in the Pakistan navy and provided high-tech training to its naval troops. However, with Pakistan’s geopolitical and geostrategic tilt in favor of China and the growing economic, and strategic partnership between both the countries, Pakistan Navy came up with a well-chalked and comprehensive program to transform its naval development especially destroyers and frigates.
As part of its modernization plan, Pakistan Navy is collaborating with China to strengthen its naval forces to deal with any possible and eminent threat in the Indian Ocean Region. Pakistan and China have agreed upon a series of arms procurements. Recently, Pakistan Navy has acquired the first of four agreed-upon Chinese-made Type 054A/P frigates (NATO Codename JIANGKA-II). This will be one of the most technologically advanced platforms of the Pakistan Navy that would substantially add to the offensive capability of the Pakistan Navy.
The development of the first two of four Type-054A/P Frigates was agreed upon in 2017. Subsequently, the other two ships were ordered in 2018. The first frigate was launched in August 2020 and the second ship was launched in January 2021. The first ship will be commissioned in Pakistan Navy in November 2021.
Named as Pakistan Navy Ship TUGHRIL, it is the 1st ship of TUGHRIL Class Ships built at HZ Shipyard, Shanghai. China. Three more ships of the same class will be commissioned by end of the next year to serve Pakistan Navy for decades as force multipliers. This is the third Pakistan Navy warship to be named TUGHRIL after an O-Class Destroyer HMS Onslaught (D04) commissioned as HMPS TUGHRIL (D-261) as part of the 25th Destroyer Squadron in 1950 and a Gearing-Class Destroyer USS Henderson (DD-785) commissioned as PNS TUGHRIL (D-167) in 1980.
The Tughril Class or Type 054A/P are Pakistan-specific, upgraded variants of the Type 054A FFGs, state-of-the-art major surface combatant warships, the most modern frigates ever developed by China, and are designed for intense anti-air, anti-surface, and anti-submarine operations in the high seas. It will be one of the most technologically advanced f ships of the Pakistan Navy Surface Fleet, equipped with the modern surface, subsurface, and anti-air weapons, long-range missiles, improved radar system, electronic warfare, air, and surface surveillance and acoustic sensors, and other combat management system. The over 4,000 tonnes, 440 feet long warships will be armed with a 32-cell Vertical Launch System (VLS), equipped with the HHQ-16 SAMs and the Yu-8 ASROCs, 2×4 ASCM launchers armed with the CM-302 supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles, anti-Submarine Torpedo launchers, anti-Submarine rocket launchers, decoy rocket launchers and two Type 1130 CIWS. The Pakistan Navy Type 054Ps might get delivered with advanced Z-9D Maritime ASW/ASuW helicopters.
Besides that other major naval collaboration programs between Pakistan and China include enhancement of long-range anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare capability, induction of long-range maritime patrol jets, medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned combat aerial vehicles, and modernization/ development of existing naval fleet with state-of-the-art weapons and surveillance systems. Pakistan is also seeking to acquire modern helicopters, corvettes, and shallow water attack submarines to further strengthen its naval forces. Pakistan has confirmed that it would buy eight stealth attack diesel-electric Yuan-class type 039A also referred to as type 041 submarines valued at $4 to $5 billion from China. Pakistan has also procured F-22P frigates, fast attack craft (missile), helicopters, and advanced survey ships from China. The Pakistan Navy has also contracted the construction of eight Hangor-class submarines (Four will be constructed in China and four will be built in Pakistan),
Pakistan believes in promoting peace and harmony in the region. It has remained committed to the international community to maintain stability and curb maritime crimes in all forms. Pakistan is proactively contributing to collaborative maritime security initiatives as a partner to international navies besides its sound initiative of Regional Maritime Security Patrol (RMSP) for a secure maritime milieu in the region and beyond. The new platform being inducted will strengthen PN’s deterrence in the region to achieve desired objectives. The induction of these warships would significantly enhance Pakistan’s maritime defense and deterrence capabilities. These ships will boost the potency of our fleet and significantly contribute to maintaining peace and security in the region. The recent evolution of the Pakistan Navy shows how far it has travelled in its quest to be a formidable military component. PNS TUGHRIL will indeed help PN in boosting its efforts, especially in IOR. Pakistan Navy will continue to play its role in contributing to the national government’s efforts for peace and stability in the region.
21 DAYS WAR PATROL BY A SUBMARINE (A STORY FROM 1971 INDO-PAK WAR)
If you are a student of history, a military man, a warfare practitioner, a person who Is interested in developing leadership skills & team entrepreneurship, and especially if you belong to a group of seamen who put ‘dolphin insignia’ on their chest, then this story will inspire you deeply. The story is about a spectacular War Patrol by Pakistan Navy Submarine HANGOR during the 1971 War. Even after 50 years, the inspiring history of this submarine has much more to offer for our future. In order to play an offensive role in the war, HANGOR sailed from Karachi Naval Base on 22 Nov and returned on 13 Dec. Apart from sinking one Indian ship (INS KHUKRl) and crippling down the other (INS KIRPAN) on 09 Dec, this War Patrol of 21 days has so many other inspirations and lessons for us. This article is going to highlight few of them.
“Submarines Constitute First Line & Last Line of Defence”
“Die erste and letzte Verteldlgungslinie” (we will constitute first line and last line of Defence); these were the words of a German Navy Admiral who secretly met his Chancellor to discuss his proposal for a major shift in Naval Strategy during World War II, and pursued for enhanced role of submarines. Since then, these words have somehow become a common saying among the submariners in different world navies. However, Pakistan Navy Submarine HANGOR’s story clearly validates these historical words.
In later half of 1971, as the war clouds loomed over Pakistan; Pakistan Navy started ‘pitching in’ its flotilla of 04 x submarines (GHAZI, HANGOR, SHUSHUK & MANGRO) on the frontlines of sea frontiers. By the 3rd week of Nov 1971, Pakistan Navy Submarines were well placed in their respective assigned areas, that is behind the enemy lines. This offensive nature of submarine deployment by Pakistan Navy, restricted free movement of Indian Surface units and they remained closed to the coast and mostly operated in shallow waters.
On 02 Dec, Indian Surface ship flotilla came out of Bombay (now Mumbai) and it was successfully detected by HANGOR which was operating off Bombay. This Indian flotilla was comprising of 10 x units including 02 x heavy units (Cruiser – INS MYSORE & Oil Tanker — INS POSHAK). HANGOR closed them for confirmation; it tracked and classified Indian Force well in time. In his book, The Sinking of INS Khukri: Survivors Stories an Indian war veteran Major General Ian Cardozo writes “the fleet was now in grave danger”. HANGOR remained poised and assessed the intention of Intercepted Indian Surface units. Submarine made an assessment that intercepted Indian surface units are an ‘Attacking Force’ which Is heading towards Karachi Major General Ian Cardozo further explains how the HANGOR could have easily neutralized the Indian force if the war would have broken out, “This was a dream target for the crew of the HANGOR or for the crew of any submarine for that matter”. Temptation of sinking the Indian units for submarine crew increased manifolds as the Indian force got further closer and it came well inside the weapon envelope of HANGOR. A grave responsibility, therefore, rested on the shoulders of the Commanding Officer of HANGOR, Commander Ahmed Tasnim (now Vice Admiral (Retired) Ahmed Tasnim HI(M), SJ & Bar, S Bt). He decided to obey the orders of higher headquarters and chose not to attack Indian units as the war was not yet declared. Indian War Veteran says “there was only one problem — the war has not yet started”. HANGOR chose to respect the orders over emotions. In his book, The Man who Bombed Karachi, Admiral Nanda an Indian Navy War Veteran states “He (Commander Ahmed Tasnim) had been egged on by many hotheads In the control room to fire his torpedoes but he refused on the grounds that war had not broken out”. As soon as Indian attacking force passed over its area, HANGOR decided to break the radio silence (against the nature of classical submarine warfare) and informed its headquarters about position and course of Indian attacking force. This was an early warning, a warning which HANGOR provided 48 hours before the attack on Karachi by Indian force. This was exactly what any frontline defence element could have offered to Its country. After the two attacks on Karachi (Operation Trident -04 Dec & Operation Python- 08 Dec); Indian Navy planned for third and most lethal attack (Operation Triumph) on Karachi. This attack was planned on 10 Dec by a larger Attacking force. Third attack was purely aimed to destroy Pakistan’s maritime infrastructure (port facilities, ships and oil storages). HANGOR, knowing the importance of earliest engagement of Indian Naval units, moved further close to Indian Coast and on 09 Dec carried out successful torpedo attacks on 02 x Indian Ships. This action of HANGOR, created a severe ‘pull back’ factors for Indian Navy. After the sinking of KHUKRI and infliction of severe damage to KIRPAN by submarine HANGOR, Indian Navy had to abandon attack on Karachi (Operation Triumph) and put its assets against only one submarine that was HANGOR. In next three days, nearly 70 percent of Indian Fleet assets participated in search and attack Operation Falcon against HANGOR. Till today, Indian Naval Strategists acknowledge that HANGOR stopped them from what they call ‘a final blow’, against Karachi.
“A Finer Model to Run a ship” Story of HANGOR provides a blueprint for leaders of any organization; which can help them to address the challenge of an increasingly complicated working matrix. Conduct of HANGOR in 1971 War gives a real-time example of precise execution, teamwork, and enabling of talent. It presents a finer model to run a ship, for that matter it is equally applicable to run any organization.
Leader Lays foundation: Success story of HANGOR does not start and end with Its action on 09 Dec, rather its stems few years before war and It is ever lasting. In 1966, Pakistan signed an agreement with France for acquisition of 03 x Daphne class submarines (HANGOR, SHUSHUK & MANGRO). There were multiple challenges for Pakistan Navy with respect to operating such complex technology, and its Integration to overall concept of operations. This all demanded a strong foundation and highest level of genius and competence. It was Commander Ahmed Tansim who was not only the Commanding Officer of leading Submarine but also overall mission Commander of this project. An officer who is Just 33 years of age, led a complex and high tech project with highest standards of efficiency. He not only ensured to train the men under Command to operate modern submarine safely and efficiently but also played a leading role In designing a framework for Pakistan Navy Submarine force with respect to documentation, publications, SOPS, tactics.
They didn’t have followers onboard: In year 2012, an Ex Commanding Officer of US Navy Submarine Captain L David Marquet presented an Interesting model to run any organization of the world. In his book Turn the Ship Around; he suggested a major deviation from “Leaders — followers model’ to ‘Leaders — Leaders model”. He argued that an efficient ship has a leadership at all level; no one is follower. Once Commanding Officer delegates and acknowledges powers to each tier of organization this creates a unique sense of ownness; sense of responsibility which results Into drive and initiative among all. Now the ship no more belongs to Captain; rather every sailor onboard owns it equally. It is also interesting that HANGOR was already following the same model In year 1971. All events related to HANGOR reveal an incredible secret that this submarine didn’t have followers onboard.
The Commanding officer perceived the Imminent outbreak of war, he started final preparations for the war deployment. However, the defective hydraulic mechanism of weapon firing system was a major hurdle for the submarine’s combat efficiency; without the same no weapon could be fired. Commanding Officer, knowing the criticality of the defect, discussed the problem with his Chief Ordinance (as JCO responsible for weapon launching system). Soon Chief Ordinance decided to abandon all his family commitments and came onboard submarine; remember it was first day of Eid-ul-Fitr. Commanding Officer and his JCO passed complete day and night onboard the submarine and nearby workshop; by midnight they were to rectify the defect.
On 01 Dec, Submarine was operating In her assigned area in enemy water, once it faced a major technical problem as Its Air Conditioning System (a life line for onboard Sensors and weapons) got defective. It was a major technical defect which required return of HANGOR to home port. Engineering officer and his team of young sailors opted otherwise and decided to rectify defect at sea. The 12 hours’ rigorous efforts of young team brought fruits and defect was rectified.
On the same day, in order to rectify the air conditioning system HANGOR came at sea surface (a most venerable situation for a submarine). At this time, one of the Indian Navy units came closer and Officer of the Watch which was on conning tower, raised the alarm and asked Commanding Officer to come up to conning tower. Commanding Officer rushed towards conning tower to assess the situation. As two officers were still trying to verify the identify of the ship, Communication Rating (a junior sailor) switched on Radio Receiver without being asked to do so. Soon he informed Command that It is an Indian Ship which is calling Its Coastal Command station Bombay. Just purely on his intelligence and initiative, he solved the problem which his Command was facing to establish the identity.
By 09 Dec, HANGOR was trying to chase and intercept Indian Warships. KHUKRI and KIRPAN Ships were following (Zig Zag course); making it hard for HANGOR to achieve a firing position. After some hours, Command team of HANGOR was able to find a solution of this complete problem; once a Lieutenant (a junior officer) came With his analytical assessment that Indian Ships were following a ‘Rectangular Search Pattern’. Ultimately HANGOR chose a future position of Indian Ships rather than chasing them and waited for them.
Captain had something Special In this 21 days of War Patrol; the conduct of Commanding Officer Is deeply thought provoking and Inspiring for all those who are heading their organizations, units, ships, submarine and for that matter any department.
He was a Risk taker: In one of the recent interview, Vice Admiral Ahmed Tasnim said; “I strongly believed If you take a calculated risk… surely you will be rewarded”. During this mission, Commanding Officer took risk more than one time; there had been deeply stressful occasions once HANGOR had to choose between death and mission.
HANGOR becomes a Fishing Boot: During the mission, HANGOR faced technical issue related to Air Conditioning System. After the decision of carrying out defect rectification at sea rather than abandoning the mission, submarine had to come at surface for duration of defect rectification. Tactically was a ‘no go’ situation for any submarine of the world. Inside the enemy areas, once enemy maritime surveillance efforts were fully mobilized, bringing HANGOR up at surface was a complete risk. In order to avoid detection, Commanding Officer decided to rig the submarine as a `fishing boat’; at night extra lights on pattern of fishing boat were installed. After making a camouflage, Commanding Officer gave order to technical team “chola bocho Bismillah karo” (Kids let’s begin the work with the name of Allah). In order to handle any sudden enemy activity only one officer alone was left on Conning Officer; submarine was adjusted for rapid dive. It was also decided that officer on Conning Tower had to be left outside if situation arises and submarine had to dive due to sudden threat from enemy.
We will not Dive: Technical team was still busy in defect rectification when the officer of the watch shouted “Captain on Bridge”; it was an emergency call for calling Commanding Officer. One of the Indian Ship was in close vicinity and the distance was reducing. Officer of the Watch asked Captain to dive; Captain remained silent Sir, “permission to dive”; Officer of Watch shouted again….Captain took a long breath and said…….”we will not dive”. Commanding officer had two options; either to dive immediately and give a strong confirmation to Indian ship which was only 2000 yards away that it was a submarine and get ready for urgent attack by the ship. Second option was even more risky, stay at the surface, continue behaving like a fishing boat and wait for Indian Ship to get open. He chose the latter, the riskier option.
Break the Radio Silence: Information related to presence of Indian Attacking force which was heading towards Karachi was vital for higher headquarters in Pakistan. HANGOR could pass such information only by opting to break its radio silence. But any radio transmission by HANGOR could result into its disclosure of position. Again, Commanding Officer, rightly weighted the option of break radio silence for passing an important Information while making necessary tactical safeguards.
Kept his nerves in control: In the late evening of 09 Dec, after achieving a good firing control solution; HANGOR fired its first torpedo against INS KIRPAN. Everything went as written procedures and doctrine, torpedo ran and went under the Indian Ship; however, it did not explode. It was a major setback for HANGOR, as submarine had already disclosed its position to Indian ship. There was a pin drop silence in the control room of HANGOR; team was mentally blocked what to do next? Here comes the role of Captain; he asked team not to worry, and got the submarine to fire the second torpedo, this time torpedo ran and hit its target which was INS KHUKRI; ship sank to seabed in less than 2 minutes. Submarine fired its third torpedo against well cautioned KIRPAN, nevertheless torpedo hit the target, inflicted severe damage. This was all possible because of strong nerves of Commanding Officer; who did not succumb to the tactical pressure and led his team.
Make myself unpredictable: After bearing loss of two ships, Indian Navy shifted complete focus for search and hunt mission against HANGOR. All possible assets were committed by Indian Navy. Indians expected that after this attack, HANGOR must be evading towards its home waters; therefore, they kept their focus on areas which were leading to Pakistani water. But HANGOR Commanding Officer, had some other plan, he told his team, “let me make myself unpredictable”; rather than evading towards home waters, he chose a complete different option. An idea, which Indian Navy never figured out. Till date, Indian war veterans embrace the sharp minds of HANGOR crew.
Sharpen the Teeth in Peacetime Importance of peacetime patrol by submarines for intelligence gathering and understanding the dynamics of enemy areas is clearly manifested by the story of HANGOR. In year 1971, few months before war, HANGOR conducted intelligence patrol in Indian Waters. Following were outcome of this patrol, which served HANGOR In war:
One of them had defective radar: HANGOR established that out of three Indian Navy Maritime surveillance aircrafts, one was having defective ‘radars— an equipment used to detect submarine periscopes and other mast once she is snorkeling (charging its batteries). During the evasion after successful hitting the Indian Ship HANGOR efficiently exploited this weakness of Indian Aircraft. HANGOR used to take chance for snorkeling once aircraft with defective radar was ‘on task’.
They transmit and wait: Before this peacetime patrol in enemy water; there was an idea among Pakistan Navy Submariners that Indian Navy leading ASW frigates (PATAYA class ships) had some technical issues with respect to their sonar (an equipment used to detect submarine under water). However, HANGOR established this was not the case. Rather, Indian ships were using a unique tactics called ‘transmit and wale; as after one active transmission (ping) of sonar they used to shift sonar mode from active to passive and luring the submarine to do a high-speed maneuver and while trying to detect submarine on passive. This revelation helped HANGOR during Operation Falcon once these Indian ships were searching of HANGOR after loss of two ships.
HANGOR found safe Heavens: The peacetime mission also helped HANGOR to identify certain classified areas within enemy waters which could be used as safe heavens. HANGOR used one of them once while she was operating on a surface for defect rectification.
Operate near to Seabed: HANGOR also established that sonar performance of enemy ships gets degraded if submarine operates near to seabed. Same factor was efficiently exploited by HANGOR once it was sneaking the barriers of Indian Ships.
Above all there was a Resilience Once HANGOR disclosed its presence to Indian Navy by hitting two ships, time and conditions were all worse for the submarine. She was operating in shallow water as less as 50 m charted depth (remember this submarine was not designed for shallow water operations); due to winter; sea was calm enough to detect even a ripple of submarine’s periscope appearing at surface of water. Full moon was also helping Indian Aircrafts to visually locate the submarine if she would break the surface and all above acoustic conditions were ideal for Indian ships to detect a submarine. HANGOR was ‘pitched in’ worst conditions which are considered a ‘nightmare for any submarine of world.
During Operation Falcon, Indian Navy committed all possible assets against HANGOR, over 156 depth charge (explosive bombs) were dropped by Indian Navy. HANGOR had to face this all without any smallest degree of comfort, submarine passed next 4 days without air conditioners, without fans, without cooking and water supply. Above all, still she was supposed to keep her mind alert with highest standards of professional competence. It was resilience of crew HANGOR which made to handle all these challenges.
Here We stand today The highest level of professional competence, team coherence, and love for the motherland, made HANGOR one of the most decorated unit of Pakistan. Not only, she got honor to be the first and the only diesel submarine which scored a hit after World War II, unit also earned 04 x Sitar-e-Jurrats, 06 x Tamghe-e-Jurrats and 14 x Imtlazi Asnads.
Every year, as a tribute to the valiant crew; 09 Dec is celebrated as HANGOR day in Pakistan Navy. This year 2021 Is considered special as this story of HANGOR will be remembered for its Golden Jubilee. In recognition of this act of valor, Pakistan Navy upcoming modern submarines are also designated as HANGAR class. But a great name is bringing a greater responsibility for present and future Pakistan Navy Submariners.
Written by: Lt Cdr Raheel Awais PN
HANGOR DAY: A TALE OF COURAGE
On 9th December each year, Pakistan celebrates this day as ‘Hangor Day’ to pay homage to the brave heroes of Pakistan Navy who fought bravely in 1971 war and brought immense respect to the country while sinking the Indian Navy Ship Kukri. The events that took place on 09 December, 1971 are the great memories for Pakistan and its people which reminds of a brilliant example of Pakistan Navy’s operational expertise and gallantry. Pakistan Navy had earned great esteem previously for its highly courageous actions in September 1965 when it launched “Operation Dwarka” and besides limited naval resources, it had succeeded in destroying the radar station at Dwarka on India’s west coast. This success marked a high standard of professional expertise, which, in December 1971, was re-marked when Pakistan Navy submarine, Hangor, sunk Indian anti-submarine frigate, INS Khukri on 09 December, 1971 near Diu Head in the southeast, almost 30 miles away from Indian coast of Gujarat. This event marked as a brilliant success in the history of war.
After gaining independence, Pakistan had realized in order to endure freedom, it ought to have a strategic ability to turn down malicious designs of its enemy. Pakistan well perceived the importance of its coastal defence and to have a hand in sea, Pakistan Navy was brought into service. Historically seen, the main purpose of establishing navies is to exert influence beyond their shores entails with additional responsibility to further strategic stability and peace at sea. Despite remained vigilant to defend its sea borders, Pakistan Navy, competing with the challenges of technology and globalization, has constantly been engaged in contributing its share at regional and international maritime realm to comply by the international obligations for collaboration. Pakistan Navy in spite of numerically less in size, underscores high standards of professionalism. In 1971 war, Pakistan Navy conducted successful operations, meant for strategic deterrence and gave a befitting reply to anti-Pakistan forces, a similarity of which is hard to find in the domain of naval warfare. On 9th December 1971, the UK build Indian Anti-Submarine frigate INS KUKRI was sunk and INS KIRPAN was badly damaged by the Pakistani submarine PNS HANGOR. The significance of this encounter increases manifold when viewed in retrospect that it was only the first occasion after world War-II, that a war ship was sunk by a conventional submarine in a live encounter at sea. It is important to realize that the HANGOR-KUKRI action did not developed overnight and the events in 1971 were shaping for such actions due to crisis in East Pakistan.
Pakistan Navy submarine HANGOR slipped in the wee hours of 22 November 1971 for a patrol off the Indian Kathiawar coast. PNS HANGOR reached its patrol area after successfully completing the difficult transit under the heavy enemy air activity and commenced her patrol. However, on 9 December 1971, when the submarine was off the Kathiawar coast; two contacts were picked up. They were identified as Indian warships by its sonar transmissions and were at a radar range of 6 to 8 miles. The two contacts were appreciated to be two anti-submarine frigates (INS KUKRI and INS KIRPAN) engaged in Search and Attack Unit operations. HANGOR was waiting on the estimated track of the targets and “Action Stations” was therefore sounded that the “shark” had bared its teeth and its moment of reality had arrived. Although the enemy was operating sonar, HANGOR was not detected and therefore still enjoyed the element of surprise. The conditions were not favorable for conducive submarine operations due to shallow depth (60-65 meters) in the area and the enemy surface fleet was in advantageous position due to limited maneuverability of submarine marine.
Nevertheless, HANGOR continued her approach and after obtaining a good firing solution; she commenced the attack by firing one torpedo at INS KIRPAN. The torpedo ran and was passed under the Indian warship and failed to explode. The element of surprise was lost as the enemy’s warship crew suddenly woke up realizing that they were under attack. The advantage had now shifted completely in favor of the enemy and INS KUKRI homed onto the known direction of torpedo launch position. The HANGOR crew kept their cool and calmly shifted target to KUKRI, obtained a quick solution and fired the second torpedo at it. This quick shot was an urgent attack with an aim to spoil the attack by KUKRI. The torpedo went straight for the target and exploded under the keel of INS KUKRI. In this spectacular action, INS KUKRI was sunk within two minutes after receiving a hit. 18 officers and 176 sailors including the Commanding Officer lost their lives. This came as a shattering blow to the Indian Navy, deflating in one stroke the exuberance generated by highly embroidered success stories of the missile attacks at PN ships off Karachi.
(Written by Maleeka Ali)
National Dialogue on Violence against Women: Legal Framework, Policy and Implementation
November 03, 2021
“Financial empoment is key factor to women empowerment that is why government is focusing on the implementation of inheritance laws. It’s the men in the society who are not providing the rights to women given by the Islam. He further stressed that we men need to be supports of women rights.” Said the Barrister Dr. M. Farogh Naseem, Federal Minister of Law and Justice on an event held at the National Police Academy (NPA), Islamaba. He appreciated NPA and Rozan for organizing the much-needed debate on the pressing issue of violence against women in our society.
Violence Against Women (VAW) is one of the main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in our society. According to the women’s rights organizations and the media reports, VAW in Pakistan kept increasing despite a series of pro-women legislation in Pakistan. Data collected by the Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (2017-2018) suggests that 28% of women age 15-49 have experienced physical violence since age 15. Considering the gravity of the issue, the National Police Academy (NPA) in collaboration with Rozan (an Islamabad based civil society organization working on gender issues since 1998) organized a national dialogue today at the National Police Academy, Islamabad. The event was aimed to generate a national dialogue on legal frameworks regarding Violence Against Women and explore a practical way forward from the survivor-centered approach.
On behalf on the NPA, Ms. Maria Mahmood (PSP) (Director In-Service Training, NPA) welcomed the distinguished guests and participants to the event. Mr. Babar Bashir, Managing Director, Rozan shared the objectives and rationale of the national dialogue with the audience. He stressed on the need of comprehensive but implemenable laws with reference to events of violence agsinst women in recent past. Mr. Allah Dino Khowaja (PSP), Commandant, NPA shed light on the policy implementation and innitiatives by the police on laws relarted to VAW.He also said that all stakeholders need to work togather to end VAW.
Ms. Maleeka Bukhari (Parlimentary Sectary of Law and Justice) appreciated the dedication of police force as a front line responders. She acknowledged and promised to advocate for making rules of pro women laws, allocate funds, set up accountability mechanism and effective and efficient implementation of laws.
The main areas of discussion were legal and policy frameworks on VAW & challenges and opportunities for implementation of the existing legal and policy frameworks. Different experts from different walk of lives including Mr. Kamran Adil (DIG-Headquarters Islamabad Capital Territory Police), Syed Kaleem Imam (Norcotics Control Division), Mr. Ihsan Ghani (retired IGP), Ms. Rukhshanda Naz (Ombudsperson, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Ms. Fouzia Viqar (former chairperson, PCSW), Ms. Nida Aly (Executive Director Asma Jahangir Legal Aid Cell), Dr. Adnan Rafiqe (Country Representative USIP), Karin Yuki Lopes (Police Advisor, ICRC), and Ms. Maria Memon, (Journalist, and TV Anchorperson) were engaged in different panel discusions to analyze the response of the criminal justice system towards GBV with the survivor centered approach.
In the end, Ms. Maria Mehmood (PSP), Director In-Service Training-NPA, and Mr. Babar Bashir, Managing Director, Rozan summarised all the recommendations which come from the panel discussions.
Mr. Qazi Jameel-ur-Rehman, Inspector General of Islamabad Police briefed the participants on various measures taken by the Islamabad Police to deal with violence against women.
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